Executive Summary

The provision of safe and reliable water supply is important to all urban dwellers. Actually, urban water supply systems aim to be a safe and reliable water supply for all urban residents. But the municipal water supply with improved public hygiene is still inadequate even in the major cities of Yangon and Mandalay. This research aims to explore the challenges facing the current water supply in Yangon, particularly at the township level. It will also identify the factors that hinder the sustainable supply of water at the township level.


Quotes from the Paper

Background of the Study
Access to clean and safe water remains a pressing issue since Yangon is undergoing rapid economic growth which is likely to result in fast-paced urbanization. These two factors combined are expected to further stress the water supply system and its alternatives. The same could also exasperate differences in services among areas in the same townships. Yangon City comprises 33 townships. Insein, one of the townships, was selected for this study partly because of its relatively higher urban population compared to other townships.

Statement of the Research Problem
Access to clean and safe water is an urgent issue in Yangon. Little research has been done on the subject, especially at the township level. This study aims to provide in-depth information on the case of Insein Township with the hope of coming up with actions and strategies that can be implemented to provide sustainable access and/or supply for residents in this area as well as Yangon City in general.

Research Questions
This study aims to answer the following questions.
      a)   What are the current water supply challenges in Insein Township?
      b)   What are the factors that hinder the sustainable supply of water in the township?
      c)   What are some of the strategies and actions that can be implemented in both the short and long-term to improve access to clean and safe water in Insein Township and Yangon City in general?



Another Development (AD) is a local Myanmar think-tank and a non-profit organization. The motto of the organization is “DIGNITY, PROSPERITY and COOPERATION” and the programs we anticipate rolling out in the coming five years reflect these principles. There are five themes that AD is focusing on: Human Rights, Multiculturalism, Decentralization and Federalism, Rural Economic Development and Social Enterprises, and E-government and E-citizen. AD was set up to be part of the solution to the problems and conflicts prevailing in Myanmar by advocating effective public policy change.